Sunday, May 24, 2020

Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1300 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Holocaust Essay Did you like this example? To study history means that one must come to terms that it is ridden with evils, most against groups of human beings. Between the late 1930s and mid-1940s, one of the worst examples of a Genocide in history had taken place in Europe. The Holocaust saw Nazis in Germany slaughtering around six million Jews and an overall total of almost eleven million human beings. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights" essay for you Create order The use of gas chambers and experiments to torture and kill these innocent lives were used to both mentally and physically wipe out a race of people. The Nazi Germans had many reasons, some clear and some complex to understand, in acting in the matter they did towards the Jews. Through different perspectives and testimonies, the culture of anti-Semitism, fear of superiors, and nationalism in Germany were all driving motivations of the perpetrators of the Holocaust. This analysis could thus help in understanding why more genocides and crimes against humanity occur to this day. The study of the Holocaust sees anti-Semitism as one of the greatest motives behind why the Nazi killed so many Jews. The hatred towards Jews stems from Adolph Hitler and his beliefs of what was wrong with Germany. He and many that followed him,associated the Jews with economic hard times and foreign oppressors, although they did not pose an actual threat to anyone (Niewyk 194). They forced the Jewish people to wear yellow stars to not be able to hide their identity, were herded into ghettos, and eventually shipped off to concentration camps with the intention to be killed. The Jews were not seen as humans but rather as outsiders that needed to be done away with in order to have the Germans rise and make society right again. Many Nazi officers were made to believe that, Jews were viewed as enemies of modernity and could never be truly part of what Nazi Germany was becoming (Jones 235). Germany, with the Nazis leading, could only see themselves going in a certain direction and revamping their economic and social climates. It was to be believed that the Jews were going to hinder this progression and a ction needed to be taken before they took over. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 stripped away the rights of Jews and added more fuel that this race was inferior to the Nazi Germans (Jones 236). No longer was it just a group of people oppressing another group of people, but with laws and a whole country were behind them in progressing along. By taking away of rights and livelihood, the Nazi revealed that anti-Semitism was rooted in every discussion that was made towards the Jews. Anti-Semitism was only the tipping point in the motivations of the perpetrators of the Holocaust. Fear played an important role in the operations of Nazi Germany and in how they carried out their plans. Many of the guards and assistants of concentration camps felt pressured to commit the killings or to construct the places where Jews may be killed. This was due to the fact that some felt that if they did not comply with their superiors, they may be kicked out or meet their own deaths. The chain of command was not only something to be abided in Nazi society, but was used as a tool for getting subordinates to do actions that they may not morally want to do. Karl Schultze, an engineer of crematoriums, expressed that he,was afraid of losing my position and of possible arrest if he did not build these deadly structures (Handout). He was not only afraid of the Nazi superiors, but fearful of going against his country and what he believed and stood for. It could even be said that some guards and workers could have been victims themselves, as they were made to have no choices in what the horrors that were going on. This fear was used in order for Nazis of higher ranks to have tasks completed, even if they were cruel and unimaginably. They made it seem that if you were not with the Nazis, then you would also become an enemy against the German state. Unfortunately, nationalism also played a role in the Nazis perpetrators actions during the Holocaust. Nationalism is having pride in ones country, whether it is through ones ideas and beliefs or through someones actions. It may seem that having pride in one country would be a positive attribute, however, it has been used to manipulate mass amounts of people to think that something may be right when it is not. The Nazis in Germany were able to systematically kill so man y Jews due to using nationalism to motivate others to commit monstrous tasks. Engineer Fritz Sander testified that, I saw it as my duty to apply specialist knowledge in this way to help Germany win the war, when discussing the building of bigger crematoriums (Handout). Similarly, when testifying, SS Wilhelm Bahr explained that I only had orders to pour in the gas and I do not know anything about it (Handout). Engineers like Sander and Nazi officers like Bahr were some of many who followed blindly by whatever Nazi superiors told them. They did so as they believed they were doing what was good for the country and did not see a reason to question anything. This became an excuse to not face the fact that they were killing innocent people in order to appease a dictator, Adolph Hitler. Many knew what harm they were doing, but looked the other way as it wasnt a good enough reason to stop. Many saw that these,ordinary Germans easily became genocidal killers and did so even though they did not have to (Jones 251). Although the Nazi gave very little choice on what certain things they had people doing, some of these men could have morally realized and stopped and hopefully escaped. But the pressure from superiors and the fear of going against the country made men turn the other way and carry on, as if nothing evil was going on. Nationalism could be an extremely manipulative way to get people to do what they want and that is exactly what the Nazis did. The Nazi Doctors were some of the evilest and cruel perpetrators of the Holocaust. These doctors would perform experiments on prisoners in the concentration camps and had no regard as to who they were experimenting with. Many of these doctors did not see the Jews as real humans, but rather as objects to tinker with. Robert Lifton explained that They [the SS doctors] did their work just as someone who goes to an office goes about his work, making what they did seem normal (Handout). These doctors almost seemed to separate themselves, from the people they were in the concentration camps and the people outside of it. By normalizing what they were doing, it made it seem as if they were not bothered by the fact that they were mutilating and killing Jews (Handout). These doctors were also being asked to do these horrific things and if they didnt comply, they might f ace consequences like anyone else who goes against the superiors of the Nazis. Isabella Leitner, a survivor of Nazi Dr. Mengle, stated that you would never suspect the evilhe was the genius of death when describing how Dr. Mengle came off before the torture (Handout). These doctors came off as normal people, yet turned towards cruel and unimaginable actions to experiment and ultimately bring death to the Jewish people. Nationalism played a huge role in the psychology of the Nazi doctors. Many of these doctors were conducting experiments for the betterment of society and hopes to help with the war. Through this reasoning, many were blind to realize what damage they were doing, as they only wanted to complete their tasks and help the country.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Conviction Offense and Prison Violence Free Essays

Conviction offense and prison violence The study of the above statement by John Sorensen and mark D. Cunningham reveals that the disciplinary data done in 2003, involving 51,527 inmates who were serving sentences in the department of corrections of Florida and of the 51,527 involved to generate that data, 9,586 were homicide convicts charged on different degrees of homicide. The homicide convicts were amongst those researched on in respect to their involvement in prison violence and misconducts. We will write a custom essay sample on Conviction Offense and Prison Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Previous misconducts related to discipline and other forms of violence reported by the numbers of inmates present at the time of the evaluation which was 14,088 and a class of inmates who are kept under strict and direct supervision, of which they were 4,113 in total, were also considered. The preference and prevalence of violence in prisons reduced as the seriousness of the crime under which the inmate was sentenced increases. The study revealed that close custody inmates were not involved in or have had anything to do with the violence that erupts in the facilities in which they are located. Moreover, some negative regression models used to evaluate this observation shows that â€Å"serious† convicted offenders are less involved in prison violence than their colleagues who have been convicted of way less charges. The â€Å"three strike laws† provides the law courts with the power to impose harsher judgments and more severe punishments if a person is convicted more than three times with the degrees of the charges increasing. The laws however, limit the punishment to life imprisonment. In another study related to this, it was found that correctional facilities experienced more cases of institutional misbehaviors than those facilities that are meant for confinement with no correctional intentions. Actual figures from the study shows that inmates in confinement facilities are less likely to be involved in any form of institutional misconducts than their counterparts in correctional facilities where most cases of these misconducts are reported and on a regular basis. This study can see an increase of officers in this correctional facilities and more tough rules on prison discipline inside correctional facilities. Violent girls or relabeled status offenders? Feld Barry C in his work about whether convicted girls should be addressed as violent girls or should be relabeled as status offenders who in most cases usually refers the offences that minors commit reveals that the government who are the policy makers and the juvenile justice system has expressed their worries about the rising number of young girls being arrester over â€Å"petty† issues. Other interested parties in this issues have seen that the cause of the arrests to be the following; ? Due to the fact that the public is â€Å"tired† of the bad behaviors exhibited by these girls leading to their regular arrests. ? Increased monitoring of home related violence in which the girls are the most adversely affected group and which can result in behavior change on the part of the girl. Policy change in the juvenile justice system and also the changes in the way parents go about with their parenting of the girl child. The author is for the idea that there should not be institutionalization of these status offenders which is reflected in the policy changing of the juvenile justice and delinquencies prevention act -deinstitutionalization encourages that minor offenders be referred to as delinquents so as to make those institutions where these â€Å"proving difficult to deal with† are confined. The author goes ahead to analyze data on the pattern of arrest and the confinement records for both and girls who are termed to be violent and have been charged following simple and aggravated acts, questioning that the fluctuating figures in number of victims and the rate differences, and the confinement of these violent girls and boys agrees to a different manner of the increase in girls violence that moves together with the thesis that explains social construction. In a different study but on the same issue of the girl rehabilitation programs, one program named multi-systemic therapy has been a success because it provides a holistic manner where a team from the state or government work together with the parents of the affected girls and in the process tries to change the parent’s behavior. This is usually done where parental activities have been found to be a cause for the girl’s behavior change and therefore influences negatively on the child’s growth and development. The team working with the parents also goes to the extent of going to the schools and evaluating if the child is responding positively to the whole program. The only real problem and hence a constraint of this very effective program is the cost, it’s too expensive and many parents cannot afford it. The study also reveals that non-specific gender programs works more effectively than gender specific programs. However, the study also shows that programs that are gender specific have positive effects in certain areas that include; improved relationship with family members, employment, education and other psychological social outcomes. How to cite Conviction Offense and Prison Violence, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Honeypot For Arbitrary Malware Usb Storage â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Honeypot For Arbitrary Malware USB Storage? Answer: Introduction Malicious software can be defined as a kind of deliberate security risk or threat. The developer of such software has malicious intention. If a system is infected with a malicious code then the system will get damaged and lose all its data (Uscilowski, 2013). Malware has several capabilities that include but is not limited to denial of operations, exploitation of vulnerabilities as well as gaining access to other system in an unauthorized manner. This report gives a clear overview of the recent and advanced trends in malware. It discuses about different kinds of malware that are existing in the market at present. It also gives a clear idea about all the technologies that are relevant in this context. It also discusses about the problems and challenging factor in malware attacks. This report figures out the important issues and its impact on the society. It gives a clear explanation of the lessons that have been learnt from the entire discussion about recent malware trends. Malware and its Types Malware or malicious codes can be considered to be one of the most harmful and dangerous security threats in this era of ICT (Wang, Streff Raman, 2012). In malware attacks the malicious program is entered into a system for the purpose of gaining unauthorized or illegal access to valuable and sensitive information. The main motto of the malware developers is to earn money or harm the users intentionally. There are several types of malware as follows: Virus: Virus is an executable program that has the capability to run or execute on any system without any permission. The execution process is carried on secretly so that the system does not come to know about it (Zhou Jiang, 2012). Viruses are incapable of duplicating itself or creating its own copies. Worms: Worms are capable of creating their own copies or replicating unlike viruses (Gandotra, Bansal Sofat, 2014). The network plays a significant role in sending the copies of the worms to different systems or nodes present in the network. Worms are said to consume high network bandwidth and have a malignant nature. Trojan horse: An application that appears to be useful and legitimate but actually contains malicious programs hidden within it is called a Trojan horse. These kinds of applications pretend to scan systems for a spyware but in reality it has been seen that they are stealing sensitive data from the systems. Spyware: This kind of malware is known for spying on the system and the activities of the system. It is capable of collecting valuable data from system in a hidden way (Erturk, 2012). It has the capability to monitor the activities of the user. Adware: This software is responsible for playing and displaying various advertisements automatically. This kind of software is developed for producing revenue for the developer of the advertisement. Ransomware: This kind of malware is known for blocking the user from accessing valuable and necessary data. It encrypts the data of the user and makes the data available to the user in exchange for a ransom amount generally paid in Bitcoins (O'Gorman McDonald, 2012). Recent Trends in Malware The recent or current malware trends tell that malware threats and attacks are increasing with the growing use of ICT. Malware can be considered to be evasive in nature as it has the capability to harm any system in an aggressive manner. Vulnerabilities existing in the two factor authentication technique in mobile phones are being exploited by the malware. These kinds of attacks are becoming a major concern for the society. Malware has the capacity to leak data from cloud storage. It has been predicted that Monero ransomware will appear in the near future. Malware developers are showing interest in an approach called code signing approach. The aim of malware developers is to get valid certificate for entering the systems. The WannaCry ransomware attack is one of the most dangerous attacks that took place in the month of May, 2017 (Mohurle Patil, 2017). It had hit 100 countries across the world. Spain, Egypt, India, China and UK were also affected badly. 1000 systems in Russia had be en infected. WanaCryptor 2.0 or WannaCry is the name of the ransomware. The users were asked to pay 300 dollars Bitcoins in exchange for their data. This is the most recent malware attack that hit the world. Recent trends in malware include browser settings modification. In these types of malware attacks the browser settings of the user are changed. It has modified the browser settings of Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. They are also capable of changing proxy settings of users. Recently such malware is developed that has the capability to crack medium to weak passwords of a system. The family of malware has shown a great increase between 2012 and the year 2013. 69 per cent increase in the malware families have been observed within 2012-2013 (Uscilowski, 2013). The number of malware families that belonged to the android group was 121 in 2012 and it grew to 204 in 2013. Figure 1: Android Malware Trend (Source: Uscilowski, 2013, p. 10) The above figure clearly shows that the sample count has increased. Recent trends in malware have shown that they are generally entering the systems through several applications. Entertainment and games are considered to be the main entrance for malware. Malware attacks can harm the system by misusing and deleting the valuable data. The figure given below gives a clear idea of this fact. Figure 2: Top Ten Applications Category with highest percentage of Malware (Source: Uscilowski, 2013, p. 10) Challenges and Problems The user or human factor that is present in IT chain is known to be the weakest link. Human factor is considered to be one of the most challenging factors or issues in mobile security. As mentioned by Arabo and Pranggono (2013), a smart home is generally more prone to all types of malware attacks. Malware can attack and infect mobile phones, electronic devices and car navigation systems. There can be virus attacks in the home environment. Protection of healthcare devices like pacemaker has become one of the challenging issues in the present generation. Malware attacks in unprotected healthcare devices can transmit data and the settings of the devices can change that can lead to dangerous consequences. Malware attacks can reconfigure the device. During the online payment method an attacker can access financial data and use it for own advantage. Few malware attacks charges premium by sending messages. Another major challenge is Botnet. Several online resources can be changed into Botne ts by the attackers. Botnets send spam emails and host phishing sites. They are also responsible for DDoS attacks. Mobile devices are the main targets of Botnets. The malware attack rates are increasing because of the poor security features and vulnerabilities of the mobile devices. Relevant Technologies and its Applications in Malware USB or universal serial bus sticks are considered to play a significant role in the spread of malware across various devices (Poeplau Gassen, 2012). USB is capable of harming systems that do not form part of an unsecured network. USBs can be used by the user to transfer files from one device to another without being aware of the fact that the USB is affected with virus. Trusted devices should not be allowed to use USB for exchanging files and documents because an infected USB can modify and even delete the valuable data of the system. ICT and internet technology play a major role in the spread of malware attacks (Chen et al., 2012). Users can download malicious files from the internet and harm the system. Malware attacks can also take place via email over the internet. The growth of information and communication technologies has increased the chance of malware attacks in this present generation. Issues Discussed Most of the issues are regarding the mobile malware attacks that are taking place in the smart electronic devices. When a file downloaded from the internet then the cyber criminals can convert it into Botnet. Botnets have the capability to carry out DDoS attacks. They can even send spam mails to spread the malware (Arabo Pranggono, 2013). Phishing sites can also be hosted by Botnets. The malicious programs can execute in devices for misusing the sensitive as well as valuable information (Chandramohan Tan, 2012). There are several reasons why a mobile phone is attacked like its ubiquity and computational powers. It is easy to attack a mobile device as it operated on an open platform. ZeuS botnet is a well known banking malware that targets various types of mobile platforms namely iPhones, Blackberry and Symbian devices (Etaher, Weir Alazab, 2015). The financial sector considers this botnet to be the most malicious banking malware that can steal financial details as well as money of the users. Important Issues that are not addressed and its impact The literature reviews have not paid much attention to the ransomware attacks and it effects. These are a type of malware attacks where the malicious code blocks the user from accessing the data of the system. The attacker uses the malicious codes to encrypt the data of the system and agrees to decrypt the data in exchange for a ransom amount of Bitcoins. The attacker provides the decryption key after receiving the Bitcoins. Malicious websites can also be responsible for a ransomware attack. The impact of this attack is disruption of daily operations and damage of sensitive data. It has the ability to harm the organizations reputation as well. The victims of the attack will face monetary or financial loss because they will have to pay huge amount for recovering the system. Important Lessons Incorporation of advanced and strong security architecture in the system is required for preventing it from malware attacks. The operating system should be updated on a regular basis and users should only download reliable applications from official sites for protecting the system against malware attacks. Latest versions of Anti-Virus software must be installed in the system from preventing and detecting any virus attack (Hsu et al., 2012). Personal firewalls can be implemented that can prevent any illegal external intrusion. Trusted applications must only be used. Security solution can be high level only by following and using multi level technique or approach. Conclusion This report concluded malware threats or risks are becoming a major concern in this world of technology. Malware developers are bypassing detection by inventing advanced techniques. Malware attack incidents are growing by huge margin. This report explained about worms, viruses, ransomware and Trojan horses. It said that viruses do not have the capability to replicate on its own while worms have the capability to replicate. It said that the relevant technologies that are needed to spread malware attacks are USB and internet technology. This report showed that recent trends in malware are to change the browser settings and crack weak passwords. This report also gave an overview about the WannaCry ransomware attack that hit the world in May, 2017. The main issues related to malware attacks are found to be the vulnerabilities in the mobile electronic devices. This report also said that certain techniques can be applied to prevent malware attacks like implementing firewall, installing Ant i-Virus software and downloading trusted applications from official sites. This report concluded that incorporation of advanced and strong security architecture in the system is required for preventing it from malware attacks. References Arabo, A., Pranggono, B. (2013, May). Mobile malware and smart device security: Trends, challenges and solutions. InControl Systems and Computer Science (CSCS), 2013 19th International Conference on(pp. 526-531). IEEE. Chandramohan, M., Tan, H. B. K. (2012). Detection of mobile malware in the wild.Computer,45(9), 65-71. Chen, Z., Roussopoulos, M., Liang, Z., Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., Delis, A. (2012). Malware characteristics and threats on the internet ecosystem.Journal of Systems and Software,85(7), 1650-1672. Erturk, E. (2012, June). A case study in open source software security and privacy: Android adware. InInternet Security (WorldCIS), 2012 World Congress on(pp. 189-191). IEEE. Etaher, N., Weir, G. R., Alazab, M. (2015, August). From zeus to zitmo: Trends in banking malware. InTrustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA, 2015 IEEE(Vol. 1, pp. 1386-1391). IEEE. Gandotra, E., Bansal, D., Sofat, S. (2014). Malware analysis and classification: A survey.Journal of Information Security,5(02), 56. Hsu, F. H., Wu, M. H., Tso, C. K., Hsu, C. H., Chen, C. W. (2012). Antivirus software shield against antivirus terminators.IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security,7(5), 1439-1447. Mercaldo, F., Nardone, V., Santone, A., Visaggio, C. A. (2016, June). Ransomware steals your phone. formal methods rescue it. InInternational Conference on Formal Techniques for Distributed Objects, Components, and Systems(pp. 212-221). Springer, Cham. Mohurle, S., Patil, M. (2017). A brief study of Wannacry Threat: Ransomware Attack 2017.International Journal,8(5). O'Gorman, G., McDonald, G. (2012).Ransomware: A growing menace. Symantec Corporation. Poeplau, S., Gassen, J. (2012, October). A honeypot for arbitrary malware on USB storage devices. InRisk and Security of Internet and Systems (CRiSIS), 2012 7th International Conference on(pp. 1-8). IEEE. Uscilowski, B. (2013). Mobile adware and malware analysis.Symantec Corp,1. Wang, Y., Streff, K., Raman, S. (2012). Smartphone security challenges.Computer,45(12), 52-58. Zhou, Y., Jiang, X. (2012, May). Dissecting android malware: Characterization and evolution. InSecurity and Privacy (SP), 2012 IEEE Symposium on(pp. 95-109). IEEE.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics Essay Example

Difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics Paper What is the difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics? What role do values play in each of these two approaches to ethics? Provide examples to illustrate your points. Descriptive ethics is founded on the belief that humans are ‘hard-wired’ to be selfish. That is, they are for the most part absorbed in fulfilling their own desires and goals. The capitalist economy is a good example of this instinct in humans, whereby, ‘greed is good’ is an accepted mantra for business corporations and individuals alike. Descriptive ethics promotes a ego-centric decision making model, whereby, an individual is morally entitled to pursue his own happiness through independent action. Cultural relativism is another term coupled to descriptive ethics. This school of thought contends that what is right or wrong is specific to the particular cultural milieu. Normative ethics, on the other hand, takes a more didactic approach to human action in that it prescribes ‘what’ is morally right through rational deliberation. While descriptive ethics merely documents what people believe to be morally right, normative ethics tries to ‘fin d out’ if there is merit in such beliefs. In this light, it is fair to claim that the normative ethical framework is more rigorous and rationalistic than the descriptive ethical framework. Normative ethics thus offers a better model for decision making. We will write a custom essay sample on Difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Difference between descriptive ethics and normative ethics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In practice, what can be said for and against utilitarianism, or a results-based approach to ethics? The utilitarian totem is ‘greatest happiness for the greatest number of people’. This objective for the evaluation of ethics is very appealing intuitively. It is also politically consistent with principles of democracy. But the issues with Utilitarianism crop up due to qualitative factors. For example, what exactly does ‘happiness’ mean? Moreover, are the values and conditions that create happiness universally the same? Even further, why should happiness or pleasure or utility be the arbiter of morality? Indeed, the purpose of moral inquiry is not so much happiness but justice. Under utilitarian ethics, the ends always justify the means. But to the extent that the means involve human action and assent, normative ethical evaluation comes into play. So, practical issues such as this have given Utilitarianism the tag of being an idealistic or utopian ethical system. In practice, what can be said for and against deontology, or ethical theories of the right? Deontology is a sharp contrast to Utilitarianism, in that actions are deemed right or wrong not through their consequences. In the contrary, those actions that are considered to be duties, including obligations, responsibilities and commitments are valued as moral. Deontological ethics aligns very well with the mandates of major religions of the world, including Christianity. For this reason, the theory has drawn criticism. It is easy to see how the concept of ‘good will’ can be equated to divine grace and hence co-opted as a justification of religious dogma. But Deontology has certain clear merits, especially the logic behind the Categorical Imperative that Kant theorized. The main appeal of Categorical Imperative is their emphasis on universal laws. What is a virtue? How can virtue-based moral reasoning help you resolve an ethical issue in business? Illustrate your points with one or two examples. The basis of virtue ethics is the understanding that virtues promote human flourishing. Though all virtues have their merits and utility only some of them are relevant for moral-based reasoning. These moral virtues include justice, mercy, generosity, humility, tolerance, compassion, love, etc. Since moderation is a core principle of virtue ethics, it especially helps give moral direction for business leaders. For example, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) code of conduct asks businesses to focus on people, the environment and only then profits. Many of the virtues such as compassion, generosity and justice are as applicable to businesses as they are to individuals. It is fair to claim that our society would improve significantly if only all businesses would incorporate virtue ethics into their code of conduct. Since character building is central to virtue ethics, it fills the lacuna left by Deontological and Utilitarian ethical models.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

the holocaust and national soc essays

the holocaust and national soc essays Upon examining the excerpts from the works of Christopher Brownings Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland; and Omer Bartovs Murder in our Midst: the Holocaust, Industrial killing, and Modernity; one develops an understanding of the responsibilities the average German soldier had on the Holocaust. Christopher Browning argues that that the average German soldier did not willingly participate in killing of Jews. Browning believes that Nazi propaganda was the machine that drove Nazism and coerced German civilians into killing the Jews. Bartovs arguments on the Holocaust are more of a theoretical depiction of both the culmination of science and law. He believes the Holocaust and National Socialism were ever-present in the organized states of the industrialized western society. We have developed ambivalence towards war and violence. All that is needed in the modernity of war is two crucial elements: a scientific stamp and legalistic sanction. Christopher Browning states in his book, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, that the majority of the German military did not willingly participate in the mass genocide of the Jews. As pointed out by Browning, Even twenty or twenty-five years later those who did quit shooting along the way overwhelmingly cited sheer physical revulsion against what they were doing as the prime motive but did not express any ethical or political principles behind this revulsion. Browning continues to follow course in that the Germans were blindly following orders. Most of the blame should come at those who gave the orders, and not the German military and civilians who executed these heinous crimes. Bartov elects to explain the governing body behind Nazism and its social uprising into the Hitler State. The emergence and implementation of industrial killing was a crucial component in the...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Constitutional Issues Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Constitutional Issues - Term Paper Example Her participation in this peaceful demonstration was more than moral—it was admirable and spirited and patriotic. There is an infringement of constitutional privileges of Lisa thus she stands a chance of getting legal remedy from courts. The court is one organ that must ensure the constitution is adhered to and respected by all. To extent, NRP events do not warranty constitutional uproar. This is because according to the NPR spokeswoman Anna Christopher; Simeone actions were against NPR's morals code. The code provides that "NPR journalists may not partake in marches and rallies" concerning issues NPR covers. The code notes that some requirements may not concern to outside providers. It uses an outworker who principally contributes arts reporting as an example. In the precedent year, NPR has come under inquiry for its dismissal of news forecaster Juan Williams after he supposed on Fox News that he was challenging on a plane with somebody wearing clothing that spots them as Mus lim. At the moment, NPR said William’s remarks violated its code of ethics by engaging in media "that support punditry and rumor rather than fact-based investigation." The system has been sensitive to allegations that it carries an open-minded bias. An NPR chief administrative was forced to quit; after a conventional activist posted a film online of NPR's chief charity performance, complaining about the tea party's pressure on the Republican Party. The case is a code of ethics verses constitution freedom. What is in the text of the Constitution that gives the Supreme Court authority under the Constitution to review an act of Congress? Section 2 of the constitution grants the Supreme Court unique jurisdiction in cases involving ambassadors, congress and consuls. It is true that the constitution grants that we have the right of free speech, however, that right is not unrestricted. It has frequently been curtailed in situations which generate a danger to others and when the comm unication defames others; as declared in libel and slander laws. This law, however, does not advocate infringing free speech; it advocates that our voted officials utilize their free speech rights in a responsible manner. What constitutional doctrine gives the Court the power to interpret whether the act is a valid exercise of Congressional power? In some cases, the Supreme Court has merely appellate jurisdiction that may be checked by the Congress. The legislative body may not, however, alter the Court's original jurisdiction, as was established in Marbury v. Madison, 5 United States Cranch 1803; the same verdict which established the code of judicial review. Marbury apprehended that Congress can neither increase nor restrict the inventive jurisdiction of the Supreme courtyard (Epstein, Walker & Thomas, 2007, pp 451). However, the appellate authority of the Court is diverse. The Court's appellate authority is given "with such exemptions, and under such system as the Congress shall constitute. What is in the text of the Constitution that may be argued to give Congress the power to enact the health care law? A provision of the foundation recognized as the â€Å"commerce clause† offers Congress power to â€Å"control commerce among the numerous states.† There is a long stripe of Supreme Court decisions making that Congress has wide power to enact laws that considerably affect prices, market locations,