Wednesday, August 26, 2020
The viability of ( Career Development Plan) in an association - Essay Example In particular, this examination will investigate whether the vocation advancement plan is a viable preparing technique to use in an association and whether it will influence the presentation of the organization. There are an assortment of speculations that include vocation advancement and many have been applied to business and initiative. To comprehend these speculations, it is essential to see some broad issues about vocation. At the point when an individual starts a situation inside an organization, they have been selected here and there. From the outset, they are carrying out the responsibility they were employed to do and on the off chance that they are eager, they might need to move to different situations inside the organization. Ordinarily, there are new abilities that the individual must obtain over the span of moving to different positions. So as to do this, numerous scholars have made a thought of what happens when individuals go into vocation advancement. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is one of the speculations that individuals talk about when they are examining profession matters. As indicated by Maslow, each individual has needs that must be met so as to in the long run carry on with a completely realized life. The essential needs of food, safe house and wellbeing (security) must be met before the individual can move onto requirements of having a place and in the long run self-completion. It is significant for pioneers, as per this hypothesis; to comprehend their necessities in an association and what persuades them (Maslow, 2009). Normally individuals working in associations will be propelled inside and remotely. Profession arranging can help comprehend which things are generally spurring, which makes an individual progressively engaged and profitable in their activity. Maslows progression is significant in seeing how individuals are propelled to function. Conduct hypotheses are another region to concentrate in profession advancement since they talk about how individuals act inside their work environment. These hypotheses place the significance of a vocation on the components
Saturday, August 22, 2020
string(48) this number in certain lodgings of Andhra Pradesh. Assessment Study on Construction of Hostels For SC Boys Girls ALL INDIA (REPORT) Program Evaluation Organization Planning Commission, New Delhi, April, 2009 CONTENTS Chapters Topic Preface Executive Summary Chapter Ã¢â¬ 1 Introduction Ã¢â¬ Background of the Scheme Ã¢â¬ Objective of the Scheme Ã¢â¬ Guidelines for Initiating Hostel Proposal Ã¢â¬ Procedure for getting Central Assistance Ã¢â¬ Evaluation Study Ã¢â¬ The Scheme in Selected States Page No. I-II I-xiii 1Ã¢â¬2 Chapter Ã¢â¬ 2 The Evaluation Study Ã¢â¬ Objectives Methodology Ã¢â¬ Objective of the Study Ã¢â¬ Sample Design Ã¢â¬ Reference time of the Study and Starting of field study Ã¢â¬ Methodology/Instruments utilized for Data Collection Ã¢â¬ Data Analysis and Report Writing 3Ã¢â¬6 Part Ã¢â¬ 3 Planning, Implementation Monitoring Method of Scheme Ã¢â¬ Role of Nodal Ministry Ã¢â¬ Role of State Nodal Department Ã¢â¬ The Level at which Proposals Initiated Ã¢â¬ The Approval Procedures of the Scheme Ã¢â¬ The Process of Implementation of the Schemes in the State opposite General Guidelines Ã¢â¬ Achievements of Physical Targets Ã¢â¬ Role of PRIs/Local Bodies under the Scheme in Construction Maintenance of the Hostels Ã¢â¬ Local Political/Bureaucratic Interference in Selection of Hostel Sites Ã¢â¬ Objective Criteria for Selecting the Location of Hostel Ã¢â¬ Inspection by State/District Administrative Authorities Ã¢â¬ Involvement/Role of NGOs Ã¢â¬ The Monitoring and Reporting System Prevailing under this Scheme, Including the Construction Stage 7 Ã¢â¬ 19 Chapter Ã¢â¬ 4 Allocation of Grants and Expenditure on Hostel 20 Ã¢â¬ 27 Ã¢â¬ Funding Pattern under the Scheme Ã¢â¬ Modality of Release of Fund Ã¢â¬ Release of State Share Ã¢â¬ Release of Central Shar e Ã¢â¬ Utilization of reserve Part Ã¢â¬ 5 Functioning and Suitability of Hostels including Facilities 28 gave to Inmates 49 Ã¢â¬ The Suitability of Locations Ã¢â¬ Layout of Construction in Case of New Hostels Ã¢â¬ Use of Hostels Constructed under the Scheme Ã¢â¬ Availability, Quality Maintenance of Facilities Provided in the Hostel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dining Hall cum Kitchen in the Hostel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Food Provided to the Inmates and its Quality Ã¢â¬ ¢ Annual Charges Paid in the Hostel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintenance of Hostel Toilets Ã¢â¬ ¢ Water Supply to the Hostels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Supply of Food grains at Concessional Rates to SC Hostels Ã¢â¬ Facilities Provided to the Inmates Ã¢â¬ The Role of Nodal Department in Management and Maintenance of the Hostels Chapter Ã¢â¬ 6 Observations on the Impact of the Scheme Ã¢â¬ The Outcomes of the Scheme in Terms of Availability and employments of the Hostel by the Target Group Ã¢â¬ Impact of Scheme on Educational Development of SC Boys and Girls 2001 Census 50 Ã¢â¬ 55 Chapter Ã¢â¬ 7 Recommendat ions Project Team 56-57 58 PREFACE The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of development of new inns just as extension of existing inns for SC young ladies was started in 963-64 in order to give a catalyst to instruction of young ladies having a place with the SC people group. During 1989-90, in light of the proposals of the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of SCs and STs, this plan was reached out to SC young men too. We will compose a custom paper test on Lodging Implementation or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now The extent of the plan was augmented further to cover foundations of advanced education/learning, for example, schools and colleges. The fundamental goal of the CSS is to give free boarding and housing offices in the inns for SC young men and young ladies learning at Schools and Colleges/University levels. So as to incorporate the SC understudies with the standard, 10 percent of all out settlement in such lodgings was left for non-SC understudies. At the occasion of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, the Program Evaluation Organization, Planning Commission, led an assessment investigation of the plan in 8 chose states. The examination was propelled in November, 2004 with the accompanying targets: (I) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) To consider the endorsement techniques of the recommendations for development of inns. To consider the procedure of usage of the plan in different States opposite the rules. To evaluate money related physical execution of the plan. To evaluate the degree of usage of lodging offices by the objective gathering. To consider the checking announcing framework winning under this plan, including that at development stage. To survey the result of the plan as far as the utilization of the inns by the objective gatherings. So as to produce the necessary information base the examination secured 185 inns from CSS, 65 lodgings from 100 percent state supported and 15 inns developed by NGOs which were tested from Eight chose states, in particular, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Moreover, two Central Universities (JNU-Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad) were likewise shrouded in the investigation. The primary discoveries of the examination are as per the following: The development organization much of the time was the state PWD which took up development work through endorsed contractual workers. The inns, after fruition, were given over to the concerned District Social Welfare Officer in a large portion of the states. The Panchayati Raj Institutions/neighborhood bodies assumed next to no job in many states. The visit of the locale authorities to the inns either during the development time frame or later was easygoing in many states. The time taken in arrival of the state offer to development organizations fluctuated impressively from state to state from two months to a half year or significantly progressively after the arrival of focal offer. Around 80 percent of the lodgings were discovered useful at the hour of visit of PEOÃ¢â¬â¢s study group. The vast majority of the non-useful lodgings were in Uttar Pradesh. Though Bihar had three such lodgings followed by Karnatka and Orissa which had two each. This was because of nonappearance I of fundamental necessity/pleasantries, wrong determination of site and without evaluating the requirement for SC understudies around there. Around 6 percent of the lodgings were found being utilized for different purposes, for example, office, library, study halls and so forth. Every one of these inns were in Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Fifteen lodgings in five states to be specific Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh were under development at the hour of visit of the investigation group to these inns. Out of these 15, in six cases, the development had been halted because of land questions on account of Uttar Pradesh and because of imperative of assets in Karnataka. Lodgings were packed in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Rajasthan where normal inhabitance per room surpassed 10 and upto 30 or even past this number in certain inns of Andhra Pradesh. You read Inn Implementation in class Papers On the other hand, inns in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, were underutilized. In the inns under 8 areas of Uttar Pradesh and 8 regions of Bihar, detainees themselves prepared food in their rooms as the worker cum cook named for the object were accounted for to be sent somewhere else by the specialists. In practically all the inns, upkeep of lodging building and toilets was unacceptable. 90 percent lodging Wardens revealed that the arrival of reserve for pay of inn staff was gotten in time. Be that as it may, award for meeting everyday support consumption was in time just in56 percent cases. The plan had critical result as far as foundation of inns in three states just to be specific Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Different states I. e. Orissa and Rajasthan didn't exploit the plan while the plan completely floundered in Bihar with immaterial impact. All in all, the lodgings profited the objective gathering of exceptionally poor SC/ST understudies seeking concentrates from significant distances. Be that as it may, the result in Bihar has been poor. The exhibition of the program could extensively be improved if the proposals made in the report could be appropriately actualized. The examination got nonstop help and consolation from HonÃ¢â¬â¢ble Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission and Member (Evaluation), Planning Commission. The examination was planned and led under the course of Shri K. N. Pathak, the then Deputy Adviser in PEO. The administrations of Institute for Resource Management and Economic Development, Delhi were benefited for classification, understanding and examination of information and planning of report. Shri L. N. Meena, Economic Officer, PEO helped the examination establishment in Data handling, Chapter Plan, Tabulation report drafting under the direction of Project Director Sh. K. N. Pathak. Dr. R. C. Dey, Director, PEO gave a last shape to the current report and Mrs. Godhuli Mukharjee, Director, REO, Kolkata altered the equivalent under direction of Dr. Davendra Verma, Adviser (PEO) and my oversight. The rundown of the Officers engaged with the examination is given toward the finish of the report. The assistance and participation got from every one of them is appreciatively recognized. S. Bhavani Sr. Adviser(PEO) New Delhi Dated: April, 2009 II Executive Summary I. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Background Objectives of the Scheme Development of inns inside or close to the grounds of instructive organizations was pictured by organizers as one of the way to empower and energize young men and young ladies having a place with Scheduled Castes(SC) people group to improve access to training. Legislature of India, hence, began the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of development of new inns just as extension of existing lodgings for SC young ladies in 1963-64 in order to give a driving force to instruction of young ladies having a place with the SC people group. During 1989-90, in view of the proposals of the Working Group on the Development and Welfar
Monday, August 17, 2020
OâReilly Primes Before you ask where my blog title (The McGann Factor) came from, Ill just come right out and tell you: Ben made me choose it. But Ive grown to really like it, for a few reasons. Certainly, it is a swiping of the nomenclature of a certain telecasters forum. Now I dont care much for that telecasters politics, but within that nomenclature you can a couple nerdy things that I like. First, the word factor, which is something I like to do to numbers. You could not imagine my joy when earlier this summer I realized that my nine-digit social security number is prime. I dont quite recall how the topic came up, but as we were talking, I was applying various divisibility tests. I wasnt certain, though, until I got to a factoring program, since I didnt know the divisibility tests for larger primes (if you can factor nine-digit composite numbers in your head and Im not talking about easy ones like 10^8 or 2^27 here you should totally list that as a talent on your application). Number theory is fun stuff. If you havent read a biography of mathematician Paul Erdos, Id recommend that as fun end-of-summer reading. Second, the obscured telecasters name is OReilly, which is also the name of the publisher of every good nerds favorite programming books. The other day, I was thinking back fondly to the days when OReillys Programming Perl was one of my best friends. You may or may not know that the OReilly books are noted for their friendly animal mascots; for example, my Perl books mascot was a camel, and Javas mascot is a tiger. This got me thinking that the various OReilly animals would make a great component to a Mystery Hunt puzzle. I brought this up to one of my housemates, Josh, who was on the winning 2003 Mystery Hunt team, and thus got to write Mystery Hunt 2004. His reply was, We did have an OReilly puzzle, dude. I was suddenly reminded that yes, in fact, there was an OReilly puzzle of sorts, and it was one of the coolest aspects of this past years Hunt. Josh, through connections still unknown to me, had been able to slip a cluephrase into the Perl Cookbook, Second Edition before it went t o press. The penultimate step of the puzzle gave you an ISBN (for the Perl Cookbook) and page number, which sent my teammates scouring the libraries for a copy of this new book. We were all in awe of Joshs ability to slip in the clue months beforehand. I feel bad for going off on a large Mystery Hunt tangent without talking in depth about it, but thats a topic for another entry. Until then, my friends, keep factoring those large numbers, and never lose sight of whats truly important (such as the Mystery Hunt). Current music: Alice In Chains, I Stay Away (old school grunge) Post Tagged #Mystery Hunt
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1300 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Holocaust Essay Did you like this example? To study history means that one must come to terms that it is ridden with evils, most against groups of human beings. Between the late 1930s and mid-1940s, one of the worst examples of a Genocide in history had taken place in Europe. The Holocaust saw Nazis in Germany slaughtering around six million Jews and an overall total of almost eleven million human beings. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights" essay for you Create order The use of gas chambers and experiments to torture and kill these innocent lives were used to both mentally and physically wipe out a race of people. The Nazi Germans had many reasons, some clear and some complex to understand, in acting in the matter they did towards the Jews. Through different perspectives and testimonies, the culture of anti-Semitism, fear of superiors, and nationalism in Germany were all driving motivations of the perpetrators of the Holocaust. This analysis could thus help in understanding why more genocides and crimes against humanity occur to this day. The study of the Holocaust sees anti-Semitism as one of the greatest motives behind why the Nazi killed so many Jews. The hatred towards Jews stems from Adolph Hitler and his beliefs of what was wrong with Germany. He and many that followed him,associated the Jews with economic hard times and foreign oppressors, although they did not pose an actual threat to anyone (Niewyk 194). They forced the Jewish people to wear yellow stars to not be able to hide their identity, were herded into ghettos, and eventually shipped off to concentration camps with the intention to be killed. The Jews were not seen as humans but rather as outsiders that needed to be done away with in order to have the Germans rise and make society right again. Many Nazi officers were made to believe that, Jews were viewed as enemies of modernity and could never be truly part of what Nazi Germany was becoming (Jones 235). Germany, with the Nazis leading, could only see themselves going in a certain direction and revamping their economic and social climates. It was to be believed that the Jews were going to hinder this progression and a ction needed to be taken before they took over. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 stripped away the rights of Jews and added more fuel that this race was inferior to the Nazi Germans (Jones 236). No longer was it just a group of people oppressing another group of people, but with laws and a whole country were behind them in progressing along. By taking away of rights and livelihood, the Nazi revealed that anti-Semitism was rooted in every discussion that was made towards the Jews. Anti-Semitism was only the tipping point in the motivations of the perpetrators of the Holocaust. Fear played an important role in the operations of Nazi Germany and in how they carried out their plans. Many of the guards and assistants of concentration camps felt pressured to commit the killings or to construct the places where Jews may be killed. This was due to the fact that some felt that if they did not comply with their superiors, they may be kicked out or meet their own deaths. The chain of command was not only something to be abided in Nazi society, but was used as a tool for getting subordinates to do actions that they may not morally want to do. Karl Schultze, an engineer of crematoriums, expressed that he,was afraid of losing my position and of possible arrest if he did not build these deadly structures (Handout). He was not only afraid of the Nazi superiors, but fearful of going against his country and what he believed and stood for. It could even be said that some guards and workers could have been victims themselves, as they were made to have no choices in what the horrors that were going on. This fear was used in order for Nazis of higher ranks to have tasks completed, even if they were cruel and unimaginably. They made it seem that if you were not with the Nazis, then you would also become an enemy against the German state. Unfortunately, nationalism also played a role in the Nazis perpetrators actions during the Holocaust. Nationalism is having pride in ones country, whether it is through ones ideas and beliefs or through someones actions. It may seem that having pride in one country would be a positive attribute, however, it has been used to manipulate mass amounts of people to think that something may be right when it is not. The Nazis in Germany were able to systematically kill so man y Jews due to using nationalism to motivate others to commit monstrous tasks. Engineer Fritz Sander testified that, I saw it as my duty to apply specialist knowledge in this way to help Germany win the war, when discussing the building of bigger crematoriums (Handout). Similarly, when testifying, SS Wilhelm Bahr explained that I only had orders to pour in the gas and I do not know anything about it (Handout). Engineers like Sander and Nazi officers like Bahr were some of many who followed blindly by whatever Nazi superiors told them. They did so as they believed they were doing what was good for the country and did not see a reason to question anything. This became an excuse to not face the fact that they were killing innocent people in order to appease a dictator, Adolph Hitler. Many knew what harm they were doing, but looked the other way as it wasnt a good enough reason to stop. Many saw that these,ordinary Germans easily became genocidal killers and did so even though they did not have to (Jones 251). Although the Nazi gave very little choice on what certain things they had people doing, some of these men could have morally realized and stopped and hopefully escaped. But the pressure from superiors and the fear of going against the country made men turn the other way and carry on, as if nothing evil was going on. Nationalism could be an extremely manipulative way to get people to do what they want and that is exactly what the Nazis did. The Nazi Doctors were some of the evilest and cruel perpetrators of the Holocaust. These doctors would perform experiments on prisoners in the concentration camps and had no regard as to who they were experimenting with. Many of these doctors did not see the Jews as real humans, but rather as objects to tinker with. Robert Lifton explained that They [the SS doctors] did their work just as someone who goes to an office goes about his work, making what they did seem normal (Handout). These doctors almost seemed to separate themselves, from the people they were in the concentration camps and the people outside of it. By normalizing what they were doing, it made it seem as if they were not bothered by the fact that they were mutilating and killing Jews (Handout). These doctors were also being asked to do these horrific things and if they didnt comply, they might f ace consequences like anyone else who goes against the superiors of the Nazis. Isabella Leitner, a survivor of Nazi Dr. Mengle, stated that you would never suspect the evilhe was the genius of death when describing how Dr. Mengle came off before the torture (Handout). These doctors came off as normal people, yet turned towards cruel and unimaginable actions to experiment and ultimately bring death to the Jewish people. Nationalism played a huge role in the psychology of the Nazi doctors. Many of these doctors were conducting experiments for the betterment of society and hopes to help with the war. Through this reasoning, many were blind to realize what damage they were doing, as they only wanted to complete their tasks and help the country.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Conviction offense and prison violence The study of the above statement by John Sorensen and mark D. Cunningham reveals that the disciplinary data done in 2003, involving 51,527 inmates who were serving sentences in the department of corrections of Florida and of the 51,527 involved to generate that data, 9,586 were homicide convicts charged on different degrees of homicide. The homicide convicts were amongst those researched on in respect to their involvement in prison violence and misconducts. We will write a custom essay sample on Conviction Offense and Prison Violence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Previous misconducts related to discipline and other forms of violence reported by the numbers of inmates present at the time of the evaluation which was 14,088 and a class of inmates who are kept under strict and direct supervision, of which they were 4,113 in total, were also considered. The preference and prevalence of violence in prisons reduced as the seriousness of the crime under which the inmate was sentenced increases. The study revealed that close custody inmates were not involved in or have had anything to do with the violence that erupts in the facilities in which they are located. Moreover, some negative regression models used to evaluate this observation shows that Ã¢â¬Å"seriousÃ¢â¬ convicted offenders are less involved in prison violence than their colleagues who have been convicted of way less charges. The Ã¢â¬Å"three strike lawsÃ¢â¬ provides the law courts with the power to impose harsher judgments and more severe punishments if a person is convicted more than three times with the degrees of the charges increasing. The laws however, limit the punishment to life imprisonment. In another study related to this, it was found that correctional facilities experienced more cases of institutional misbehaviors than those facilities that are meant for confinement with no correctional intentions. Actual figures from the study shows that inmates in confinement facilities are less likely to be involved in any form of institutional misconducts than their counterparts in correctional facilities where most cases of these misconducts are reported and on a regular basis. This study can see an increase of officers in this correctional facilities and more tough rules on prison discipline inside correctional facilities. Violent girls or relabeled status offenders? Feld Barry C in his work about whether convicted girls should be addressed as violent girls or should be relabeled as status offenders who in most cases usually refers the offences that minors commit reveals that the government who are the policy makers and the juvenile justice system has expressed their worries about the rising number of young girls being arrester over Ã¢â¬Å"pettyÃ¢â¬ issues. Other interested parties in this issues have seen that the cause of the arrests to be the following; ? Due to the fact that the public is Ã¢â¬Å"tiredÃ¢â¬ of the bad behaviors exhibited by these girls leading to their regular arrests. ? Increased monitoring of home related violence in which the girls are the most adversely affected group and which can result in behavior change on the part of the girl. Policy change in the juvenile justice system and also the changes in the way parents go about with their parenting of the girl child. The author is for the idea that there should not be institutionalization of these status offenders which is reflected in the policy changing of the juvenile justice and delinquencies prevention act -deinstitutionalization encourages that minor offenders be referred to as delinquents so as to make those institutions where these Ã¢â¬Å"proving difficult to deal withÃ¢â¬ are confined. The author goes ahead to analyze data on the pattern of arrest and the confinement records for both and girls who are termed to be violent and have been charged following simple and aggravated acts, questioning that the fluctuating figures in number of victims and the rate differences, and the confinement of these violent girls and boys agrees to a different manner of the increase in girls violence that moves together with the thesis that explains social construction. In a different study but on the same issue of the girl rehabilitation programs, one program named multi-systemic therapy has been a success because it provides a holistic manner where a team from the state or government work together with the parents of the affected girls and in the process tries to change the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. This is usually done where parental activities have been found to be a cause for the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior change and therefore influences negatively on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development. The team working with the parents also goes to the extent of going to the schools and evaluating if the child is responding positively to the whole program. The only real problem and hence a constraint of this very effective program is the cost, itÃ¢â¬â¢s too expensive and many parents cannot afford it. The study also reveals that non-specific gender programs works more effectively than gender specific programs. However, the study also shows that programs that are gender specific have positive effects in certain areas that include; improved relationship with family members, employment, education and other psychological social outcomes. How to cite Conviction Offense and Prison Violence, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Honeypot For Arbitrary Malware USB Storage? Answer: Introduction Malicious software can be defined as a kind of deliberate security risk or threat. The developer of such software has malicious intention. If a system is infected with a malicious code then the system will get damaged and lose all its data (Uscilowski, 2013). Malware has several capabilities that include but is not limited to denial of operations, exploitation of vulnerabilities as well as gaining access to other system in an unauthorized manner. This report gives a clear overview of the recent and advanced trends in malware. It discuses about different kinds of malware that are existing in the market at present. It also gives a clear idea about all the technologies that are relevant in this context. It also discusses about the problems and challenging factor in malware attacks. This report figures out the important issues and its impact on the society. It gives a clear explanation of the lessons that have been learnt from the entire discussion about recent malware trends. Malware and its Types Malware or malicious codes can be considered to be one of the most harmful and dangerous security threats in this era of ICT (Wang, Streff Raman, 2012). In malware attacks the malicious program is entered into a system for the purpose of gaining unauthorized or illegal access to valuable and sensitive information. The main motto of the malware developers is to earn money or harm the users intentionally. There are several types of malware as follows: Virus: Virus is an executable program that has the capability to run or execute on any system without any permission. The execution process is carried on secretly so that the system does not come to know about it (Zhou Jiang, 2012). Viruses are incapable of duplicating itself or creating its own copies. Worms: Worms are capable of creating their own copies or replicating unlike viruses (Gandotra, Bansal Sofat, 2014). The network plays a significant role in sending the copies of the worms to different systems or nodes present in the network. Worms are said to consume high network bandwidth and have a malignant nature. Trojan horse: An application that appears to be useful and legitimate but actually contains malicious programs hidden within it is called a Trojan horse. These kinds of applications pretend to scan systems for a spyware but in reality it has been seen that they are stealing sensitive data from the systems. Spyware: This kind of malware is known for spying on the system and the activities of the system. It is capable of collecting valuable data from system in a hidden way (Erturk, 2012). It has the capability to monitor the activities of the user. Adware: This software is responsible for playing and displaying various advertisements automatically. This kind of software is developed for producing revenue for the developer of the advertisement. Ransomware: This kind of malware is known for blocking the user from accessing valuable and necessary data. It encrypts the data of the user and makes the data available to the user in exchange for a ransom amount generally paid in Bitcoins (O'Gorman McDonald, 2012). Recent Trends in Malware The recent or current malware trends tell that malware threats and attacks are increasing with the growing use of ICT. Malware can be considered to be evasive in nature as it has the capability to harm any system in an aggressive manner. Vulnerabilities existing in the two factor authentication technique in mobile phones are being exploited by the malware. These kinds of attacks are becoming a major concern for the society. Malware has the capacity to leak data from cloud storage. It has been predicted that Monero ransomware will appear in the near future. Malware developers are showing interest in an approach called code signing approach. The aim of malware developers is to get valid certificate for entering the systems. The WannaCry ransomware attack is one of the most dangerous attacks that took place in the month of May, 2017 (Mohurle Patil, 2017). It had hit 100 countries across the world. Spain, Egypt, India, China and UK were also affected badly. 1000 systems in Russia had be en infected. WanaCryptor 2.0 or WannaCry is the name of the ransomware. The users were asked to pay 300 dollars Bitcoins in exchange for their data. This is the most recent malware attack that hit the world. Recent trends in malware include browser settings modification. In these types of malware attacks the browser settings of the user are changed. It has modified the browser settings of Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. They are also capable of changing proxy settings of users. Recently such malware is developed that has the capability to crack medium to weak passwords of a system. The family of malware has shown a great increase between 2012 and the year 2013. 69 per cent increase in the malware families have been observed within 2012-2013 (Uscilowski, 2013). The number of malware families that belonged to the android group was 121 in 2012 and it grew to 204 in 2013. Figure 1: Android Malware Trend (Source: Uscilowski, 2013, p. 10) The above figure clearly shows that the sample count has increased. Recent trends in malware have shown that they are generally entering the systems through several applications. Entertainment and games are considered to be the main entrance for malware. Malware attacks can harm the system by misusing and deleting the valuable data. The figure given below gives a clear idea of this fact. Figure 2: Top Ten Applications Category with highest percentage of Malware (Source: Uscilowski, 2013, p. 10) Challenges and Problems The user or human factor that is present in IT chain is known to be the weakest link. Human factor is considered to be one of the most challenging factors or issues in mobile security. As mentioned by Arabo and Pranggono (2013), a smart home is generally more prone to all types of malware attacks. Malware can attack and infect mobile phones, electronic devices and car navigation systems. There can be virus attacks in the home environment. Protection of healthcare devices like pacemaker has become one of the challenging issues in the present generation. Malware attacks in unprotected healthcare devices can transmit data and the settings of the devices can change that can lead to dangerous consequences. Malware attacks can reconfigure the device. During the online payment method an attacker can access financial data and use it for own advantage. Few malware attacks charges premium by sending messages. Another major challenge is Botnet. Several online resources can be changed into Botne ts by the attackers. Botnets send spam emails and host phishing sites. They are also responsible for DDoS attacks. Mobile devices are the main targets of Botnets. The malware attack rates are increasing because of the poor security features and vulnerabilities of the mobile devices. Relevant Technologies and its Applications in Malware USB or universal serial bus sticks are considered to play a significant role in the spread of malware across various devices (Poeplau Gassen, 2012). USB is capable of harming systems that do not form part of an unsecured network. USBs can be used by the user to transfer files from one device to another without being aware of the fact that the USB is affected with virus. Trusted devices should not be allowed to use USB for exchanging files and documents because an infected USB can modify and even delete the valuable data of the system. ICT and internet technology play a major role in the spread of malware attacks (Chen et al., 2012). Users can download malicious files from the internet and harm the system. Malware attacks can also take place via email over the internet. The growth of information and communication technologies has increased the chance of malware attacks in this present generation. Issues Discussed Most of the issues are regarding the mobile malware attacks that are taking place in the smart electronic devices. When a file downloaded from the internet then the cyber criminals can convert it into Botnet. Botnets have the capability to carry out DDoS attacks. They can even send spam mails to spread the malware (Arabo Pranggono, 2013). Phishing sites can also be hosted by Botnets. The malicious programs can execute in devices for misusing the sensitive as well as valuable information (Chandramohan Tan, 2012). There are several reasons why a mobile phone is attacked like its ubiquity and computational powers. It is easy to attack a mobile device as it operated on an open platform. ZeuS botnet is a well known banking malware that targets various types of mobile platforms namely iPhones, Blackberry and Symbian devices (Etaher, Weir Alazab, 2015). The financial sector considers this botnet to be the most malicious banking malware that can steal financial details as well as money of the users. Important Issues that are not addressed and its impact The literature reviews have not paid much attention to the ransomware attacks and it effects. These are a type of malware attacks where the malicious code blocks the user from accessing the data of the system. The attacker uses the malicious codes to encrypt the data of the system and agrees to decrypt the data in exchange for a ransom amount of Bitcoins. The attacker provides the decryption key after receiving the Bitcoins. Malicious websites can also be responsible for a ransomware attack. The impact of this attack is disruption of daily operations and damage of sensitive data. It has the ability to harm the organizations reputation as well. The victims of the attack will face monetary or financial loss because they will have to pay huge amount for recovering the system. Important Lessons Incorporation of advanced and strong security architecture in the system is required for preventing it from malware attacks. The operating system should be updated on a regular basis and users should only download reliable applications from official sites for protecting the system against malware attacks. Latest versions of Anti-Virus software must be installed in the system from preventing and detecting any virus attack (Hsu et al., 2012). Personal firewalls can be implemented that can prevent any illegal external intrusion. Trusted applications must only be used. Security solution can be high level only by following and using multi level technique or approach. Conclusion This report concluded malware threats or risks are becoming a major concern in this world of technology. Malware developers are bypassing detection by inventing advanced techniques. Malware attack incidents are growing by huge margin. This report explained about worms, viruses, ransomware and Trojan horses. It said that viruses do not have the capability to replicate on its own while worms have the capability to replicate. It said that the relevant technologies that are needed to spread malware attacks are USB and internet technology. This report showed that recent trends in malware are to change the browser settings and crack weak passwords. This report also gave an overview about the WannaCry ransomware attack that hit the world in May, 2017. The main issues related to malware attacks are found to be the vulnerabilities in the mobile electronic devices. This report also said that certain techniques can be applied to prevent malware attacks like implementing firewall, installing Ant i-Virus software and downloading trusted applications from official sites. This report concluded that incorporation of advanced and strong security architecture in the system is required for preventing it from malware attacks. References Arabo, A., Pranggono, B. (2013, May). Mobile malware and smart device security: Trends, challenges and solutions. InControl Systems and Computer Science (CSCS), 2013 19th International Conference on(pp. 526-531). IEEE. Chandramohan, M., Tan, H. B. K. (2012). 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